Plenary Sessions 
Marc Henneaux (Collège de France, Intl. Solvay Inst. and Brussels U.)
Title:
Asymptotic Symmetries and Algebras:
a review
Abstract:
A review
of asymptotic (more generally,
boundary) symmetries will be given
in the context of the Hamiltonian
formulation. General features (such
as the form of the symmetry
generators and the structure of the
algebra) as well as specific
examples will be covered. A
particular attention will be paid to
asymptotically flat spaces and the
asymptotic BMS algebra, where
nonlinear redefinitions will be
shown to yield a supertranslationinvariant
angular momentum.
Back 
Paolo Creminelli (ICTP, Trieste)
Title:
Primordial NonGaussianity: the f_NL
~ 1 threshold
Abstract:
I will
review the theoretical and
experimental status in the search of
primordial nonGaussianity,
focussing on some recent
developments and ideas.
In particular I will try to answer
the question: what are we going to
learn when experiments will be able
to probe f_NL ~ 1?
Back 
Yashar Akrami (IFT, Madrid)
Title:
Largescale cosmic anomalies:
current status, future prospects,
and possible explanations
Abstract:
Even
though the current observational
data show an extremely high level of
agreement with predictions of the
standard model of cosmology,
LambdaCDM, the cosmic microwave
background (CMB) temperature
fluctuations measured by the WMAP
and Planck satellites have shown a
number of persistent anomalous
features on largeangular scales
that are unexpected or extremely
unlikely in LambdaCDM cosmology.
These anomalies, which are
properties of the observed sky and
not instrumental artifacts, are all
related to violation of statistical
isotropy, and even though they
could, individually taken, be
statistical flukes, they may also be
hints of new physics beyond the
standard cosmological model. In this
talk, after providing a critical
review of the CMB
largeangularscale anomalies, their
history, and their current status, I
will discuss some of the existing
explanations for the features,
ranging from the fluke hypothesis
and astrophysical foregrounds within
LambdaCDM to different physical
models beyond the standard picture,
in particular the possibility that
the Universe has a nontrivial
topology, and will review
phenomenological expectations for
each explanation. I will argue that,
in addition to the new perspectives
on existing data that the powerful
and continuously advancing
computational and statistical
techniques may provide, it is also
essential to investigate the
anomalies further with upcoming and
future highprecision cosmological
data, including observations of the
CMB polarization and the cosmic
largescale structure. This is
because any observations of similar
or related anomalies in any data
sets other than the CMB temperature
sky will ameliorate concerns about
lookelsewhere penalties for the a
posteriori statistical
characterization of the CMB
temperature anomalies while
dramatically increasing the
statistical significance of the
features to a level which will
inevitably force us to revise or
rethink the standard model of
cosmology. Finally, I will discuss
potential connections between the
CMB anomalies and the reported
tensions in the measured values of
the cosmological parameters of the
LambdaCDM model and argue that a
combination of these tensions and
anomalies may provide a smoking gun
for the existence of new physics
beyond the standard model of
cosmology.
Back 
Stefano Profumo (University of California, Santa Cruz)
Title:
Black Holes as Dark Matter
Abstract:
The
possibility that some of the black
holes in the universe have a
nonstellar origin and that they
play a significant role in cosmology
 including being some or all of the
dark matter  is both timely and
intriguing. I will review the status
of the field, describe search
strategies and future prospects for
detection across many decades in
mass, discuss how primordial black
holes could seed both baryonic and
particle dark matter in the very
early universe, and argue that the
search for subsolar mass black
holes may lead to a deeper
understanding of the elusive
Galactic "rogue planets".
Back 
Ahmed Almheiri (NYU, Abu Dhabi)
Title:
A review on quantum black holes:
progress and open problems
Abstract:
Our
understanding of quantum black holes
has come a long way from the initial
observations of Bekenstein and
Hawking from roughly half a century
ago. This talk will review our
current understanding of black holes
as quantum mechanical systems with
finite Hilbert spaces and how it is
supported by calculations using the
gravity path integral. The talk will
highlight several works over the
past decade that implement such
techniques to display different
quantum mechanical aspects of black
holes. Challenges and open problems
will be discussed, especially those
that relate to the nature of the
interior.
Back 
Sebastian Trojanowski (Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw)
Title:
BSM physics and neutrinos in the
forward region of the LHC and beyond
Abstract:
Forward physics at
the Large Hadron Collider has
entered its new era, with the
ongoing searches for BSM species and
neutrino physics program at FASER
and
SND@LHC
experiments. In this talk, I will
review the first results of these
measurements and discuss the recent
progress and status of the proposed
extension, namely the Forward
Physics Facility. I will also
highlight selected interesting
prospects for forward searches at
future collider facilities.
Back 
David Nichols (Virginia U.)
Title:
Gravitationalwave memory effects
from astrophysical sources
Abstract:
Gravitational waves are a prediction
of general relativity that were
first directly measured in the
previous decade by the LIGO and
Virgo detectors, mostly from the
collisions of black holes.
Currently, these groundbased
detectors observe a blackhole
merger about once every other day.
New gravitationalwave frequency
bands are opening, notably with
pulsar timing arrays, which have
found strong evidence for a
stochastic gravitationalwave
background from supermassive
blackhole mergers. A spacebased
gravitationalwave detector, LISA,
is scheduled to launch in the 2030s,
and it will detect gravitational
waves at intermediate frequencies
between pulsar timing arrays and
groundbased detectors. These
observations have and will continue
to provide insights into the
nonlinear and dynamical regime of
general relativity. One such
prediction of general relativity
that has not yet been observed is
the gravitationalwave memory
effect: a change in the spacetime
metric that persists after a burst
of gravitational waves passes by a
detector. In this talk, I will
review the history of the memory
effect, the different astrophysical
sources that produce it, and the
detection prospects for the effect.
I will also discuss the more
recently understood relationship
between the memory effects and the
asymptotic symmetries and charges of
isolated systems in general
relativity. This later perspective
has led to the prediction of many
generalizations of the memory
effect, which I will also review.
Back 
Michele Maltoni (IFT, Madrid)
Title:
Phenomenology of neutrino
oscillations
Abstract:
In this
talk I will review where we stand
with the research activity on
neutrino oscillations, with
particular attention to the
phenomenological aspects and the
determination of the oscillation
parameters. A special emphasis will
be put on the synergies between
different classes of experiments,
showing how the complementarity
between solar, atmospheric, reactor
and accelerator data can help to
solve the parameter degeneracies
commonly arising in both standard
and nonstandard neutrino scenarios.
Back 
Cliff Burgess (McMaster U. and Perimeter Inst.)
Title:
UV Priors for Cosmic Acceleration
Abstract:
We live
in remarkable times: the recent
advent of gravitationalwave
observations allows testing gravity
in a strongly relativistic regime.
We also have plausible candidates
for UV physics that can reconcile
General Relativity with Quantum
Mechanics. Primordial cosmic
fluctuations might even provide
direct observational evidence for
gravitating quantum physics at very
high energies. But a central
organizing feature of Nature 
Decoupling  beautifully explains
why lowenergy measurements are
largely insensitive to UV details
and so at first sight seems to
thwart the extraction of fundamental
insights about UV physics from
astrophysical or cosmological
observations. This talk argues that
a few UV features can penetrate the
fog of decoupling in interesting
ways. Decoupling constraints are
less pressing (but still present)
for inflationary expansion in the
very early universe, but are crucial
at the low energies being explored
in the presentday universe. I argue
that decoupling ideas point to a
class of lateuniverse cosmologies
that are relatively poorly explored.
Back 
Parallel Sessions 
Hepph 
Sovan Chakraborty (Indian Inst. Tech, Guwahati, India)
Title:
Fast
Oscillations in Supernovae
Neutrinos: Beyond Active Flavors
Abstract: Sterile neutrinos are the hypothetical singlet fermions which interact with ordinary
matter only through mixing with the active neutrinos. In the context of Supernovae (SN),
the generation of activesterile through MikheyevSmirnovWolfenstein (MSW) conversions
for the eV mass sterile species have been found to affect the SN explosion and nucleosynthesis
in an appreciable manner. Motivated from this, it becomes interesting to probe the effect of
these kinds of MSW conversions on the fast flavor conversions (FFC’s) of neutrinos occurring
deep inside the SN core. In this talk, we discuss the possible impact of the activesterile neutrino
oscillations on the zero crossings in the neutrino flavor lepton number in a 2+1
scenario (2 active and 1 sterile species) as the presence of the latter is a crucial factor in the
development of FFC’s. We found, through a representative example of an outer resonance,
that the corresponding change in the number of electron neutrino and antineutrino due to MSW
resonance can potentially modify the subsequent zero crossings and thus affect the occurrence
of FFC’s significantly.

Nicolás Bernal (NYU, Abu Dhabi)
Title:
Thermal Dark Matter with
LowTemperature Reheating
Abstract:
We
explore the production of thermal
dark matter (DM) candidates (WIMPs,
SIMPs, ELDERs and Cannibals) during
cosmic reheating. Assuming a general
parametrization for the scaling of
the inflaton energy density and the
standard model (SM) temperature, we
study the requirements for kinetic
and chemical DM freezeout in a
modelindependent way. For each of
the mechanisms, up to two solutions
that fit the entire observed DM
relic density exist, for a given
reheating scenario and DM mass. As
an example, we assume a simple
particle physics model in which DM
interacts with itself and with SM
through contact interactions. We
find that lowtemperature reheating
can accommodate a wider range of
couplings and larger masses than
those permitted in the usual
instantaneous hightemperature
reheating. This results in DM
solutions for WIMPs reaching masses
as high as 10^14 GeV, whereas for
SIMPs and ELDERs, we can reach
masses of 10^13 GeV. Interestingly,
current experimental data already
constrain the enlarged parameter
space of these models with
lowreheating temperatures.
Nextgeneration experiments could
further probe these scenarios.
Back 
Manibrata Sen (MPIK, Heidelberg)
Title:
Boosting galactic dark matter with
relic supernova neutrinos
Abstract:
Diffuse neutrinos from past
supernovae in the Universe present
us with a unique opportunity to test
dark matter (DM) interactions. These
neutrinos can scatter and boost the
DM particles in the Milky Way halo
to relativistic energies allowing us
to detect them in terrestrial
laboratories. In this talk, I will
discuss how the consideration of
energydependent crosssections for
DM interactions can significantly
affect constraints previously
derived under the assumption of
constant crosssections, modifying
them by multiple orders of
magnitude. I will focus on generic
models of DMneutrino and electron
interactions, mediated by a vector
or a scalar boson, and discuss new
limits obtained on DMneutrino and
electron interactions for DM with
masses in the range $\sim (0.1,
10^4)$~MeV, using recent data from
XENONnT, LUXZEPLIN, and PandaX4T
direct detection experiments.
Back 
Saeed Abbaslu (IPM, Tehran)
Title:
Searching for Axial Neutral Current
NonStandard Interactions of
neutrinos by DUNElike experiments
Abstract:
The
increasingly precise neutrino
experiments raise the hope for
searching for new physics through
studying the impact of Neutral
Current (NC) NonStandard
Interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with
matter fields. Neutrino oscillation
experiments along with the Elastic
Coherent $\nu$ Nucleus Scattering
(CE$\nu$NS) experiments already set
strong bounds on all the flavor
elements of the ``vector" NC NSI.
However, ``axial" NC NSI can hide
from these experiments. We show how
a DUNElike experiment can probe
these couplings by studying NC Deep
Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events.
We find that strong bounds can be
set on the axial NC NSI of neutrinos
with the $u$, $d$, and $s$ quarks.
We show that using both the near and
far detectors, a DUNElike
experiment can significantly improve
the present bounds on all the flavor
elements.
Back 
Masud Mehedi (ChungAng U., Seul, Korea)
Title:
Probing Large
Extra Dimension at DUNE using beam
tunes
Abstract:
The
Deep Underground Neutrino
Experiment (DUNE) is a leading
experiment in neutrino physics
which is presently under
construction. DUNE aims to
measure the yet unknown
parameters in the three flavor
oscillation case which includes
discovery of leptonic CP
violation, determination of the
neutrino mass hierarchy and
measuring the octant of 23
mixing angle. Additionally, the
ancillary goals of DUNE include
probing the subdominant effects
induced by possible physics
beyond the Standard Model (BSM).
One such new physics scenario is
the possible presence of Large
Extra Dimension (LED) which can
naturally give rise to tiny
neutrino masses. LED impacts
neutrino oscillation through two
new parameters,  namely the
lightest Dirac mass m0 and the
radius of the extra dimension R.
At the DUNE baseline of 1300 km,
the probability gets modified
more at the higher energy (> 45
GeV) in presence of LED. In this
talk, we attempt to constrain
the parameter space of m0 and R
by performing a statistical
analysis of neutrino data
simulated at DUNE far detector
(FD). We illustrate how a
combination of the standard low
energy (LE) neutrino beam and a
medium energy (ME) neutrino beam
can take advantage of the
relatively large impact of LED
at higher energy and improve the
constraints. In the analysis we
also show the role of the
individual oscillation channels,
as well as the two neutrino mass
hierarchies.
Back 
Yuber F. PerezGonzalez (IPPP, Durham U., UK)
Title:
Gravitational Particle Production
and Leptpgenesis
Abstract:
In a
curved spacetime, the definition of
particles depends on the observer's
frame of reference. Consequently, in
nonstationary spacetimes, such as
those present in the Early Universe
during and after inflation or during
the gravitational collapse leading
to black hole formation, a
substantial production of particles
may occur. This talk explores the
impact of gravitational particle
production (GPP) on scenarios
generating the observed
matterantimatter asymmetry,
particularly in the context of
leptogenesis. We first examine the
effects of cosmological GPP, showing
that the observed asymmetry could be
produced without requiring the
Universe to be reheated to
temperatures matching the
righthanded neutrino masses.
Additionally, we investigate the
interplay between leptogenesis and
primordial black holes,
demonstrating that Hawking
evaporation can either enhance or
suppress the generated asymmetry,
depending on the specific black hole
parameter space.
Back 
Hepth 
Luca Ciambelli (Perimeter Inst. Theo. Phys.)
Title:
Quantizing Null
Hypersurfaces
Abstract:
In this talk, we first
present a detailed analysis
of the classical geometry of
generic null hypersurfaces.
We then reformulate the
Einstein equations as
conservation laws for the
intrinsic geometric data on
these hypersurfaces.
Following this, we derive
the symplectic structure and
the corresponding Poisson
bracket. Upon quantizing
this phase space, we propose
that the projected Einstein
tensor obeys the operator
product expansion of the
stress tensor in a conformal
field theory along null
time. This hypothesis is
supported by explicit
computations in simplified
scenarios, such as the
absence of radiation and
within the framework of
perturbative gravity.
Notably, we discover a
nonvanishing central
charge, which counts the
local geometric degrees of
freedom and diverges in the
classical limit. We suggest
that this central charge is
a fundamental principle
underlying the emergence of
time in quantum gravity. If
time permits, we will
conclude by introducing a
mesoscopic model of quantum
gravity on null
hypersurfaces, based on the
concept of the "embadon," an
operator that creates
localized bits of area on
cuts.
Back 
Batoul Banihashemi (UC Santa Cruz)
Title:
Gravity at finite cutoff
Abstract:
In this
talk I describe thermodynamics of
gravitational systems with conformal
boundary conditions. The main focus
is on comparing the series of
subextensive terms in the free
energy to predictions from thermal
effective field theory. We observe
that while there is agreement in
terms of the high temperature
expansion structure, the first
subextensive correction to the free
energy is negative. This violates a
conjectured bound on this
coefficient in quantum field theory,
which we interpret as a signal that
gravity does not fully decouple in
the putative boundary dual.
Back 
Aritra Banerjee (Birla Inst. Tech. Sci. India)
Title:
Strings near black holes are
Carrollian
Abstract: I will talk about
classical closed bosonic strings
probing the nearhorizon region of a
nonextremal black hole and show
that this corresponds to
understanding string theory in the
Carroll regime. This is done by
first performing a Carroll expansion
and then a nearhorizon expansion of
a closed relativistic string,
subsequently showing that they
agree. As a consequence of the
Carroll expansion, I will show that
two different regimes exist, that
of two different Carroll strings: a
magnetic one and an electric one.
Back 
Reza Javadinezhad (New York Uni & IPM)
Title: Angular momentum flux
noninvariance under supertranslations
Abstract: After a short review
of the BMS group, I will discuss the
noninvariance of the angular
momentum flux, which is an important
quantity from both theoretical and
numerical perspective.
Theoretically, it's important to
eliminate ambiguity in the
definition of the flux, while in
simulations, it has a direct impact
on the results. I will conclude by
explaining the solution to this
problem.
Back 
Ida Rasulian (School of physics, IPM)
Title:
Strings and Virasoro Sandwich
Conditions
Abstract: We revisit the
canonical quantization of free
bosonic closed string theory and
observe that the physicality of
states requires vanishing of the
worldsheet Virasoro algebra
generators sandwiched between any
two physical states. This
requirements yields four classes of
physical states, depending on
discrete worldsheet symmetries:
parity and time reversal. The usual
string states which are highest
weight states of the Virasoro
algebra, preserve both, while the
other new three classes break one
or both. We apply our formulation to
an accelerated worldsheet with
horizons, initiating the worldsheet
formulation of a thermal string
theory and strings probing horizon
of black holes.
Back 
V.
Taghiloo(IPM)
Title:
Covariant Phase Space Formalism
with Fluctuating Boundaries
Abstract: The
association of conserved charges
with local symmetries, such as
diffeomorphisms in gravitational
theories, presents greater
challenges compared to global
symmetries. Among the various
approaches, the covariant phase
space method stands out due to
its preservation of covariance.
In this talk, we extend the
covariant phase space formalism
to include fluctuating
boundaries. Remarkably, we
demonstrate that accounting for
these boundary fluctuations
renders the surface charge
variations integrable, with the
resulting integrable charge
coinciding with the Noether
charge. We also explore the
structure of the Noether charge
algebra and its associated
central charge. As an
application, we provide a robust
proof of the black hole first
law and the Smarr relation for
any diffeomorphisminvariant
theory of gravity.
Back


Cosmology 
Tomi Koivisto (Inst. of Phys., Uni. of Tratu)
Title:
SO(4) YM
theory of gravity and cosmology
Abstract: A YangMills
theory of spacetime and gravity is
formulated in terms of the compact
gauge group SU(2)xSU(2). A
symmetrybroken SU(2) phase of the
theory allows a simplified
description of the gravitational
dynamics, which can be mapped to the
conventional pseudoRiemannian
geometrical description of general
relativity in the presence of a cold
dark matter. The symmetric phase is
the "ground state" of the theory
wherein the composite
pseudoRiemannian metric vanishes.
It is speculated that the initial
conditions of the Universe could be
explained by its emergence from the
symmetric phase
Back 
Mohammad Malekjani (Bu Ali Sina U.)
Title:
Evaluating the Standard LCDM
Model PostDESI Observations
Abstract: In
this talk, I will present our
recent research on evaluating
the standard ΛCDM cosmology
following the release of the
Dark Energy Survey Instrument (DESI)
data in 2024. Firstly, by
utilizing the recent DESI BAO
observations in conjunction with
Planck CMB anisotropies (2018)
and various samples of type Ia
Supernovae, including Pantheon+,
Union3, and DESSN5YR
compilations, we confirm the
possible deviations indicated in
DESI collaboration research
through more generalized dark
energy (DE) parameterizations
beyond the CPL model.
Particularly, we observe that
the deviation from the standard
model is more pronounced in the
BA parameterization. Secondly,
we examine the standard model
within the context of a
cosmographic approach using the
DESI BAO observations combined
with different type Ia
Supernovae datasets. We identify
potential tensions with the
standard model by comparing the
cosmographic parameters of the
ΛCDM model with those obtained
from a modelindependent
cosmographic approach.
Back 
KrzysztofJan Turzynski (University of Warsaw)
Title:
Preheating and gravitational waves
from geometrical destabilization
Abstract:
Multifield models of inflation with
negative fieldspace curvature may
lead to geometrical destabilization
of nonadiabatic, or spectator,
scalar perturbations. This
phenomenon can occur at the end of
inflation, e.g. in alphaattractor
models of inflation, or during
inflation. Recent numerical lattice
simulations shed light onto dynamics
of the coupled scalar perturbations
when such geometrical
destabilization occurs. In the
endofinflation geometrical
destabilization, a rapid growth of
the spectator perturbations can lead
to preheating and associated
production of gravitational waves,
to the extent that alpha attractor
Tmodels can be constrained or even
ruled out by present observations.
The middleofinflation geometrical
destabilization turns out a
shortlived phenomenon and a
negative feedback loop prevents
field fluctuations from growing
indefinitely. As a result, fields
undergoing geometrical
destabilization are merely shifted
to a new classical configuration
corresponding to a uniform value of
the spectator field within a Hubble
patch.
Back 
Ranjini Mondol (IIS, Bangalore)
Title:
Dipole Cosmology: A Direction
for our Universe
Abstract: We will
look into the scope of a
paradigm shift by
introducing a “Dipole
Cosmology” ansatz, which
retains the homogeneity
assumptions but relaxes the
assumptions on isotropy.
Increasingly numerous (but
still tentative)
observations suggest that we
are observers embedded in a
“bulk flow”. Dipole
Cosmology refers to the
ansatz that explores the
most symmetric
generalization of FLRW
models that can incorporate
global flows. Einstein
equations in our “dipole
cosmology” are still
ordinary differential
equations – but instead of
the two Friedmann equations,
now we have four. The two
new functions can be viewed
as an anisotropic scale
factor that breaks the
isotropy group from SO(3) to
U(1) and a “tilt” that
captures the cosmic flow
velocity. A key observation
is that the cosmic flow
(tilt) can grow even while
the anisotropy (shear) dies
down. We also demonstrated
how multiple fluid
components with independent
flows can be realized in
this setup. This is the
necessary step to promote
“tilted” Bianchi cosmologies
to a viable framework for
cosmological model building
involving fluid mixtures (as
in FLRW). We introduced a
dipole ΛCDM model, which has
radiation and matter with
independent flows, with a
positive cosmological
constant. A remarkable
feature of models containing
radiation (including dipole
ΛCDM) is that the relative
flow between radiation and
matter can increase at late
times, which can contribute
to interesting phenomenology
e.g., some nonkinematical
contribution of the CMB
dipole. Interestingly, the
cosmography at the
background level shows that
acceleration is possible
even in the absence of a
cosmological constant for
the Dipole Universe.
Back 
Kohei Kamada (Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Title:
Primordial
magnetic fields and baryon
isocurvature problem
Abstract:
Gammaray observations of blazars
suggest the existence of the
intergalactic magnetic fields and
their origin is interest for both
astro physicsts and cosmologists.
Among several proposals,
magnetogenesis in the early Universe
is an interesting option since it
might also be a probe for the
physics beyond the Standard Model of
particle physics. Recently, it has
also been proven that the baryon
asymmetry of the Universe can be
also generated if the magnetic
fields are produced before the
electroweak symmetry breaking with
helicity without imposing any new
physics. However, baryon
isocurvature perturbations are also
generated at the scale of the
magnetic field coherence length in
the mean time, which is constrained
by the inhomogeneous Big Bang
Nucleosynthesis. Note that this is
an inevitable consequence of the
Standard Model of particle physics.
In this talk, I give generic
constraints of the hypermagnetic
field properties generated before
the electroweak symmetry breaking.
Noting that the baryon isocurvature
perturbations are generated even
from nonhelical magnetic fields, I
show that with reasonable parameter
sets for the Standard Model of
particle physics and magnetic field
evolution laws, the intergalactic
magnetic fields suggested by the
blazar observations are hardly
explained solely by the
hypermagnetic fields generated
before the electroweak symmetry
breaking. Helical hypermagnetic
fields can still be the origin of
the present baryon asymmetry of the
Unvierse, but we need an additional
magnetogenesis or an unknown
magnetic field amplification
mechanism.
Back 
Adrià GómezValent (ICC, Barcelona U.)
Title:
Analysis of the tension between 3D
and 2D BAO measurements
Abstract:
Data on Baryon Acoustic
Oscillations (BAO) are
considered to be one of the most
robust observational probes in
Cosmology. They have been widely
used to characterize the dark
sector and are also a pivotal
ingredient in the building of
the inverse distance ladder and
the assessment of the Hubble
tension. However, concerns
remain about modeldependencies
in BAO analyses. Anisotropic (or
3D) BAO data are extracted from
tracer maps by converting the
measured redshifts into
cosmological distances assuming
a concrete fiducial $\Lambda$CDM
model, and there are works
claiming an underestimation of
the errors by a factor of two.
Angular (or 2D) BAO data,
instead, are more
modelindependent, since the BAO
signal is extracted avoiding the
use of a fiducial cosmology. In
this work, we reveal a
significant tension between 3D
and 2D BAO measurements, with
discrepancies that vary
depending on the specific data
sets used to quantify the
tension, but can reach up to
$4.6\sigma$. This discrepancy
induces dramatic changes in the
latetime solutions to solve the
Hubble tension. 3D BAO requires
an ultralate phantomlike
evolution of the effective dark
energy (DE) fluid accompanied by
a sudden growth of the absolute
magnitude of SNIa $M$ at $z\lesssim
0.2$, while 2D BAO is compatible
with the constant value of $M$
measured by SH0ES and points to
the existence of an effective DE
component with negative energy
density at $z\gtrsim 1.52$.
Finally, if time permits, I will
discuss the socalled $w$XCDM
model, a composite model with
dynamical dark energy and
phantom matter with the
potential to resolve the Hubble
and growth tensions. The model
is supported by a comprehensive
data set that includes SNIa,
cosmic chronometers, 2D BAO,
largescale structure data, and
the full CMB likelihood from
Planck 2018, and is strongly
preferred over its most direct
competitors.
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